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认识您的居家清洁剂 – 芳香剂 | Knowing Your Household Cleaner – Fragrance

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清洁产品中的芳香剂

空气清新剂,扩散器和蜡烛,从肉桂到雪松木改变了我们家的气味。从成分标签来看总是并不很清楚,但几乎所有消费品(例如漂白剂,洗涤剂,洗发剂)中都发现芳香剂。平均而言,芳香剂产品释放17‘挥发性化合物’到周围环境中。

在过去的十年中,越来越多的证据关于芳香剂的识别,流行以及风险已被发表。科学和公众的关注甚至导致引入“无芳香” 的工作场所政策。风险是否过度,或者我们是否应该对于经常污染我们的居家更为谨慎(即使有令人愉快的气味)?

为什么把芳香剂添加到清洁产品中?

Cleaning supplies on wooden table with copy space, top view

芳香剂添加到清洁产品中以改善其气味。这是通过两种相似但非常微妙的方法来完成的。首先是使用合成芳香剂,例如’galaxolide’(一种独特的花香,木香味)。这些强烈的气味明显的而且可以的使产品香味化(例如作为“花卉”销售的清洁产品)。

第二种是使用’掩蔽’芳香剂。清洁产品中的许多化学品本身确实令人不舒适(例如硫表面活性剂如同“臭鸡蛋”)。作为“不含香料”销售的清洁产品通常使用较低浓度的“天然”精油来掩盖化学成分,从而产生中性产品。

注意:掩蔽芳香剂仍然是一种芳香剂。透过技术性复杂的消费者标签法规允许这种做法 – 以下将更详细地讨论。

有不同类型的芳香剂吗?

有许多方法可以对芳香剂进行分类,但这通常是透过它们的气味或来源(例如植物或合成香精)来达到的。颜色可以分成轮圈,同样也适用于芳香剂。稍微不那么自觉性,但四个不同族类可以组合产生任何气味(虽然这种做法通常留给技术熟练的’调香师’):

  • 花香(柔和花香,东方花香)
  • 东方(柔和的东方,东方木质)
  • 木质(苔藓森林,干木材,芳香)
  • 新鲜(柑橘,果味,绿色,水)

对芳香剂进行分类的另一种常用方法是透过芳香剂的生产。有超过2,500种独特的芳香剂,下表中有常见的例子。许多芳香剂可以是天然或合成的(例如柠檬烯)。

香精在清洁产品中有哪些风险?

选择芳香剂是因为它们具有强烈的气味。这意味着只需要低香味浓度来改变产品的气味,通常占清洁产品的不到0.3%(或高达3%的织物柔软剂)。这有助于降低有害影响的风险,但香水仍然与有关:

  • 哮喘和急性发作
  • 胸闷和喘息
  • 婴儿腹泻和呕吐
  • 头痛
  • 刺激性或接触性皮炎
  • 粘膜刺激

这些影响可能很严重,并且更常见于过敏性疾病患者,如哮喘和对其他成分的过敏。据报道,高达10%的美国人口对芳香产品有刺激。

我怎么知道清洁产品中含有什么芳香剂?

消费者应该被告知他们所购买的产品中含有哪些成份(例如透明度,环境,医疗,个人信仰)。这是非常明显的,即使在低浓度亦会带来副作用。尽管如此,在标签上看到“芳香剂”比在细节上更常见。标签立法有助于解释原因。

1.美国

在美国,家用产品中的芳香剂(例如洗洁剂,织物柔软剂,空气清新剂)受“消费者产品安全委员会”的监管。 “公平包装和标签法”禁止披露“商业秘密”。这包括芳香剂,因为它们可以是复杂的混合物。相反,制造商必须考虑:

作为掩蔽剂的成分或成分混合物……可以用其个别称号或“芳香剂”注明。在产品中存在微量的掩蔽剂可被视为是突发成分,在这种情况下不需要在标签上注明.’21 CFR 701.3(a)(www.ecfr.gov

此外,“联邦有害物质法”考虑的是最终产品而非个别成份(有很多很多的例外)。对于清洁产品,标签上会出现如“刺激性”或“易燃性”等一般警告,但不会出现个别成份的健康风险(例如接触性皮炎与芳香剂)。这使相关的制造商或以反复试验成为避免有害成分的唯一方法。

2. 欧洲联盟

20多年来,欧盟一直在审查可能引起过敏性疾病(例如接触性皮炎)的芳香剂的证据,并特别鉴定了26种最有害的芳香剂。在2009年11月引入“EC No.1223 / 2009”之前,并没有立法强制制造商在标签上正式列出这些产品。

截至2018年,该列表已扩展至256种成份(包括芳香剂,染料等),必须在无论任何浓度都需在成份标签上注明。这份列表包括合成和植物成分,辨识到’天然’香水亦可能是有害的。法规规定,制造商必须根据医疗要求提供详细的数据表,但必须遵守保密规定,以防止更广泛的出版。

注意:立法因国家和地区而异。全球立法通常与欧盟的关系比美国(例如澳大利亚,新西兰和阿根廷)更为一致。

摘要:

我们的家里充满了芳香剂。它们被添加到清洁产品中以掩盖其他化学物质的气味(例如表面活性剂),但与一系列健康影响有关。不断的研究以确定风险,然而严重呼吸(例如哮喘急性发作)和皮肤病(例如皮炎)与芳香剂影响有关。

标签规定各不相同,但在欧盟制造商必须明确说明对已知有害的芳香剂标签 – 在美国情况并非如此。没有通用的方法来避免芳香剂(’掩盖香味’可以在’无香味’中找到)。值得信赖的评论和透明的制造商是避免特定芳香剂的唯一可靠方法。

资料来源:https://www.safehouseholdcleaning.com/fragrance-free-cleaning-products/

Fragrances in Cleaning Products

Air fresheners, diffusers, and candles transform our homes with smells ranging from cinnamon to cedar wood. It is not always clear from ingredient labels, but fragrances are also found in nearly all consumer products (e.g. bleaches, detergents, shampoos). On average, fragranced products release 17 ‘volatile compounds’ into their surroundings.

In the past decade, increasing evidence has been published into the identification, prevalence, and risks of fragrances. Scientific and public concern has even led to the introduction of ‘fragrance-free’ workplace policies. Are the risks overblown, or should we be more cautious routinely polluting our homes (even with pleasant smells)?

Why are fragrances added to cleaning products?

Cleaning supplies on wooden table with copy space, top view

Fragrances are added to cleaning products to improve their smell. This is done through two similar, but very subtly different methods. The first is to use synthetic fragrances such as ‘galaxolide’ (a distinctive floral, woody smell). These strong smells clearly and intentionally fragrance a product (e.g. cleaning products marketed as ‘floral’).

The second is to use ‘masking’ fragrances. Many chemicals in cleaning products are intrinsically unpleasant (e.g. ‘rotten eggs’ associated with sulphur surfactants). Cleaning products marketed as ‘fragrance-free’ often use lower concentrations of ‘natural’ essential oils to mask chemical ingredients, creating a neutral product.

Note: A masking fragrance is still a fragrance. The practice is permitted through the complex technicalities of consumer labelling regulations – discussed in more depth below.

Are there different types of fragrance?

There are many ways to classify fragrances, but this is commonly achieved through their smell or origin (e.g. botanical or synthetic). Colours can be separated into a wheel, and the same applies for fragrances. Slightly less intuitive, but four distinct groups can be combined to create any smell (although the practice is generally left to skilled ‘perfumers’):

  • Floral (soft floral, floral oriental)
  • Oriental (soft oriental, woody oriental)
  • Woody (mossy woods, dry woods, aromatic)
  • Fresh (citrus, fruity, green, water)

The other common method of classifying fragrances is by how they are produced. There are over 2,500 unique fragrances, with common examples in the table below. Many fragrances can be produced naturally or synthetically (e.g. limonene).

What are the risks of fragrances in cleaning products?

Fragrances are chosen because they have strong smells. This means only low fragrance concentrations are needed to alter the smell of a product, typically accounting for less than 0.3% of a cleaning product (or up to 3% of fabric softeners). This helps to reduce the risk of harmful effects, but fragrances are still associated with:

  • Asthma and exacerbations
  • Chest tightness and wheezing
  • Infant diarrheal and vomiting
  • Headaches
  • Irritant or contact dermatitis
  • Mucosal irritation

These effects can be severe and are more frequently reported by those with allergic conditions, such as asthma and hypersensitivities to other ingredients. It has been reported that up to 10% of the US population has experienced irritation with fragranced products.

How do I know what Fragrances are in a cleaning product?

There are many reasons consumers should be told which ingredients are in products they buy (e.g. transparency, environmental, medical, personal beliefs). This seems obvious given adverse effects experienced at even low concentrations. Despite this, it is more common to see ‘fragrances’ on a label than the specifics. Labelling legislation helps to explain why.

1. United States

In the US, fragrances in household products (e.g. detergents, fabric softeners, air fresheners) are regulated by the ‘Consumer Product Safety Commission’. The ‘Fair Packaging and Labelling Act’ prevents the disclosure of ‘trade secrets’. This includes fragrances, as they can be complex blends. Instead, manufacturers must consider:

The ingredient or mixture of ingredients acting as a masking agent…may be declared by their individual name(s) or as “fragrance”. A masking agent present in a product at an insignificant level may be considered an incidental ingredient under in which case it need not be declared on the label.’ 21 CFR 701.3(a) (www.ecfr.gov)

In addition, the ‘Federal Hazardous Substances Act’ considers final products and not individual ingredients (with many, many exceptions). For cleaning products, general warnings such as ‘irritant’ or ‘flammable’ appear on labels, but not the health risks of individual ingredients (e.g. contact dermatitis with fragrances). This leaves responsible manufacturers or trial-and-error as the only way to avoid harmful ingredients.

2. European Union

For over 20 years the EU has reviewed evidence for fragrances that are likely to cause allergic conditions (e.g. contact dermatitis), and specifically identified 26 of those most harmful. There was no legislation forcing manufacturers to formally list these on labels, until the introduction of ‘EC No.1223/2009’ in November 2009.

As of 2018, the list has expanded to 256 ingredients (including fragrances, dyes, etc.) that must be explicitly stated on ingredient labels at any concentration. This list includes both synthetic and botanical ingredients, recognizing that ‘natural’ fragrances can be harmful. The regulations specify that manufacturers must make detailed datasheets available on medical request, although bound by confidentiality, preventing wider publication.

Note: Legislation varies considerably by country and region. Global legislation is generally more closely aligned to the EU than US (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina).

Summary

Our homes are filled with fragrances. These are added to cleaning products to mask the smell of other chemicals (e.g. surfactants) but are associated with a range of health effects. Research is on-going to determine the risk, but fragrances have been associated with both severe respiratory (e.g. asthma exacerbations) and dermatological (e.g. dermatitis) effects.

Labelling regulations vary, but in the EU manufacturers must explicitly state fragrances known to be harmful on ingredient labels – this is not the case in the US. There is no universal way to avoid fragrances (‘masking fragrances’ can be found when ‘fragrance-free’). Trusted reviews and transparent manufacturers are among the only reliable methods to avoid specific fragrances.

Source: https://www.safehouseholdcleaning.com/fragrance-free-cleaning-products/

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