Home » General » 认识您的居家清洁剂 – 我的清洁产品是否含有激素干扰物? | Knowing Your Household Cleaner – Do my cleaning products contain hormone disruptors?

认识您的居家清洁剂 – 我的清洁产品是否含有激素干扰物? | Knowing Your Household Cleaner – Do my cleaning products contain hormone disruptors?

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我们的家里充满了各种清洁和个人护理产品。这些都包含列出和未列出,可以污染我们周围空气的化学成分。在成人和儿童的人尿样中都可以检测到许多这些化学物质。

您可能听说过清洁产品中含有某些成分可以改变荷尔蒙的恐怖故事。无论存有任何的意图和目的,这些恐怖故事都有一些道理。

本文的目的是确定这些风险的真实性和真实性。

在本文中,我们将看到:

  • 什么是激素干扰物
  • 在研究清洁产品中发现的化学物质之前,已知内分泌干扰物
  • 我们将检视科学证据,了解风险的真实
  • 在考虑替代品之前,您应该避免使用这些成分
  • 当然,我们列出了我们引述的所有科学论文,以得出我们的结论

什么是内分泌干扰物?

内分泌干​​扰物或“内分泌干扰化合物”(EDCs)是可以改变激素信号传导的化学物质。人们担心这些化学物质的普遍化可能对一系列身体系统产生负面和不可预测的影响,包括:

  • 甲状腺功能
  • 神经系统
  • 生殖功能
  • 消化(影响维生素和矿物质的吸收或利用)
  • 胰岛素功能

[临床上有益于内分泌干扰物的一个例子是,可以人工调节月经周期的口服避孕药]

清洁产品中的内分泌干扰物

内分泌干​​扰物没有严格的分类,如果以足够的浓度摄入,该名称可以应用于许多化学品。以下是清洁产品中发现的化学物质被认为透过职业性暴露在预期的浓度下引起内分泌干扰(例如吸入,摄入或皮肤吸收)。

1. 环硅氧烷(例如六甲基环三硅氧烷,十二甲基环己基硅氧烷)
用于:
将环状挥发性甲基硅氧烷加入到产品中以改善其质感和“扩散”,或作为溶剂来溶解其他成分。

成分标签:
未登记,’cyclomethicone’,’cyclopentasiloxane’或’D5’内分泌干​​扰:弱雌激性

证据:
环硅氧烷在空气中(10-16天)和人体组织(最多160小时,或接近7天)具有长的半衰期。在老鼠研究中,八甲基环四硅氧烷(D4)已被证明与雌激素受体相互作用较弱。这一发现的影响尚不清楚,但结合长半衰期,人们担心这些化学物质可能会增加癌症的发病率。

2. 乙二醇醚(例如2-丁氧基乙醇,2,2-甲氧基乙氧基乙醇)
用于:
清洁产品中的各种作用,作为用于制备其他成分的溶剂,直接添加为表面活性剂。

成分标签:
非离子表面活性剂’或’二醇’内分泌干​​扰:降低生育能力,并可能增加其他化学物质的影响

证据:
有超过50种常用的乙二醇醚,它们的代谢产物已被证明可激活核受体,可能加强其他内分泌干扰物的作用。乙二醇醚的接触与精子数量减少和自然流产有关,但相关性仍然缺乏证据。

3. 邻苯二甲酸盐(例如DEHP,DEP,DBP)
用于:
添加到塑料中并用作清洁产品中的溶剂。邻苯二甲酸盐经常从许多消费品中的塑料中渗出。

成分标签:
通常在“芳香剂”或“香水”下列为用于溶解芳香剂的溶剂之一内分泌干​​扰:抗雄激性

证据:
西方国家的人体尿液样本普遍显示存有邻苯二甲酸盐。这是令人担忧的,因为这些化学物质具有导致内分泌干扰最强的证据。邻苯二甲酸盐是“抗雄激素”,因此反对睾酮,可能导致精液质量下降和男性发育异常。

4.对羟基苯甲酸酯(例如对羟基苯甲酸甲酯,对羟基苯甲酸丙酯)
用于:
添加到清洁产品中作为防腐剂和抗菌剂,有助于延长保质期。

成分标签:
防腐剂’内分泌干​​扰:雌激性

证据:
就像邻苯二甲酸盐一样,在家中,对羟基苯甲酸酯的存在无处不在,几乎100%的尿液样本都呈阳性。对羟基苯甲酸酯及其代谢产物具有雌激素作用,有人认为在儿童时期,对羟基苯甲酸酯的雌激素特性可能超过自然雌激素水平 – 影响发育。

5.烷基酚(例如壬基酚,辛基酚)
用于:
常用的非离子表面活性剂中有助于去除污渍和污垢,也可用于溶剂溶解其他成分。

成分标签:
非离子表面活性剂’或’酚类’内分泌干​​扰:弱雌激性

证据:
在老鼠研究中,烷基酚类已显示出弱雌激性。当暴露于高剂量(远高于清洁产品的暴露)时,化学物质导致大鼠的学习和记忆功能显着降低,并且在怀孕期间导致存活的后代数量较少。低浓度对人类的影响尚不清楚。

6.乙醇酰胺(例如单乙醇胺,二乙醇胺)
用于:
乳化剂,有助于在洗衣洗涤剂和其他清洁产品中让水溶性和脂溶性成分混合。

成分标签:
非离子表面活性剂,单乙醇胺’或’MEA’内分泌紊乱:与1型糖尿病相关

证据:
乙醇酰胺经常与其他内分泌干扰物组合在一起,但缺乏这些效应的证据。相反,已知乙醇酰胺会增加哮喘的发病率,并且相当的浓度足以致癌。乙醇酰胺,亚硝胺的副产物对胰岛β细胞的毒性作用所诱发的糖尿病有关。

7.双酚A(BPA)
用于:
许多不同塑料中的成分,包括环氧树脂和聚碳酸酯塑料。居家里大多数塑料制品中BPA可是无处不在,从清洁产品到儿童玩具。

成分标签:
BPA内分泌干​​扰:甲状腺功能,雌激性和多巴胺能

证据:

BPA是人尿样中广泛存在的另一种成分。该化学物质结合甲状腺受体,减少甲状腺激素的作用。 BPA还模仿雌激素和多巴胺的作用,与婴儿发育减少相关。 2017年,欧洲化学品管理局将其对BPA的评级提高到“非常高的关注度”。

8.三氯生(TCS)
用于:与对羟基苯甲酸酯非常相似,三氯生抑制细菌和真菌的生长,有助于延长保质期。

成分标签:
防腐剂’内分泌干​​扰:甲状腺功能

证据:
短期,低浓度的三氯生接触已被证明可导致研究中的老鼠甲状腺功能减退症。对此化学品的关注已经提出,因为观察到人体接触限值非常接近于这些有害影响的浓度 – 作出非常小的安全限度。

风险有多真实?

很难确定清洁产品中的化学物质是否会导致内分泌干扰,甚至更难以确定这种内分泌干扰是否会对健康产生影响。动物和细胞研究有关内分泌干扰的影响不断在30 – 40年研究中,导致监管机构限制最有害成分的浓度。

更多的研究是绝对需要的,特别是内分泌干扰物长期接触理论对人类的影响。

那么有什么替代品?

完全根除您家中的清洁产品是几乎不可能,但可以采取措施减少您接触最有害的化学品。现在,鉴于大多数清洁产品制造商都不透露相关清洁产品的成分,这很难做到。这是一个可耻的情况,也是这个网站存在的原因。我们只会对我们拥有完整成分披露的产品做出审查。如果我们发现任何甚至具有内分泌干扰理论风险的化学物质,都会警告你。为您提供进一步研究的机会,并在必要时使用替代产品。

文章来源:https://www.safehouseholdcleaning.com/cleaning-product-hormone-disruptors/

Our homes are filled with various cleaning and personal care products. These all contain listed and unlisted chemical ingredients, which can pollute the air around us. Many of these chemicals can be detected in human urine samples, in both adults and children.

You may have heard horror stories of cleaning products contain ingredients that can alter your hormones. And to all intents and purposes, there is some truth to these horror stories.

The aim of this article is to determine how true and how real these risks are.

In this article we’ll look at:

  • What are hormone disruptors
  • Before looking at what chemicals found in cleaning products are known endocrine disruptors
  • We’ll look at the scientific evidence to see how real the risks are
  • Before looking at alternatives should you wish to avoid these ingredients
  • And of course, we list all the scientific papers we’ve referenced to get to our conclusions

What are Endocrine Disruptors?

Endocrine disruptors, or ‘endocrine-disrupting compounds’ (EDCs), are chemicals that can alter hormone signaling. There is concern that the prevalence of these chemicals may have negative, and unpredictable effects on a range of body systems, including [1]:

  • Thyroid function
  • Nervous system
  • Reproduction
  • Digestion (affecting the absorption or utilization of vitamins and minerals)
  • Insulin function

[An example of a clinically beneficial endocrine disruptor is the oral contraceptive pill, which artificially regulates the menstrual cycle.]

Endocrine Disruptors in Cleaning Products

Endocrine disruptors aren’t strictly classified, and the name can be applied to many chemicals if ingested in sufficient concentrations. The chemicals below, found in cleaning products, are thought to possibly cause endocrine disruption at concentrations expected from occupational exposure (e.g. inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption).

1. Cyclosiloxanes (e.g. hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, dodecamethylcyclohexylsiloxane)
Used for:
The cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes are added to products to improve their texture and ‘spreading’, or as a solvent to help dissolve other ingredients.

Ingredient Labels:
Unlisted, ‘cyclomethicone’, ‘cyclopentasiloxane’ or ‘D5’

Endocrine Disruption: Weakly estrogenic

Evidence:
The cyclosiloxanes have a long half-life, both in the air (10-16 days), and in human tissues (up to 160 hours, or almost seven days) [2]. In rat studies, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), has been shown to interact weakly with estrogen receptors [3]. The implications of the finding are unclear, but combined with the long-half life, there is a concern the chemicals may increase the incidence of cancer.

2. Glycol Ethers (e.g. 2-butoxyethanol, 2,2-methoxyethoxyethanol)
Used for:
Variety of roles in cleaning products, from acting as a solvent used to make other ingredients, to being added directly as a surfactant.

Ingredient Labels: ‘Nonionic surfactants’ or ‘glycols’

Endocrine Disruption:
Reduced fertility, and may increase the effects of other chemicals

Evidence:
There are over 50 commonly used glycol ethers, and their metabolites have been shown to activate nuclear receptors, possibly potentiating the effects of other endocrine disruptors [4]. Exposure to the glycol ethers has been associated with reduced sperm counts and spontaneous abortion, but the correlation is still lacking evidence [5].

3. Phthalates (e.g. DEHP, DEP, DBP)
Used for:
Added to plastics and used as a solvent in cleaning products. Phthalates frequently leech from the plastics found in many consumer products.

Ingredient Labels:
Normally listed under ‘fragrances’ or ‘perfumes’ as one of the solvents used to dissolve fragrances

Endocrine Disruption: Antiandrogen

Evidence:
Human urine samples in Western countries universally show the presence of phthalates [6]. This is concerning, because the chemicals have the strongest evidence base for endocrine disruption. Phthalates are ‘antiandrogens’, and so oppose testosterone, possibly leading to reduced semen quality and abnormal male development [7].

4. Parabens (e.g. methyl paraben, propyl paraben)
Used for:
Added to cleaning products as a preservative and antimicrobial, helping to prolong shelf-lives.

Ingredient Labels: ‘Preservatives’

Endocrine Disruption: Estrogenic

Evidence: Much like phthalates, the presence of parabens is ubiquitous in the home, and almost 100% of urine samples test positive for their presence. Parabens and their metabolites are estrogenic, and it has been suggested that in childhood the estrogenic-properties of parabens could exceed natural estrogen levels – affecting development [8].

5. Alkylphenols (e.g. nonylphenols, octylphenols)
Used for: Common nonionic surfactants used to help remove stains and dirt, can also be used a solvent to dissolve other ingredients.

Ingredient Labels: ‘Nonionic surfactants’ or ‘phenols’
Endocrine Disruption: Weakly estrogenic

Evidence: Alkylphenols have been shown to be weakly estrogenic in rat studies [9]. When exposed to high doses (much higher than exposure from cleaning products), the chemicals resulted in significantly reduced learning and memory function in rats, and in pregnancy resulted in a lower number of live offspring. The effects of low concentrations in humans are unclear.

6. Ethanolamides (e.g. monoethanolamine, diethanolamine)
Used for:
An emulsifier to help mix water- and fat-soluble ingredients in laundry detergents, and other cleaning products.

Ingredient Labels:
‘Nonionic surfactants’, ‘monoethanolamine’ or ‘MEA’

Endocrine Disruption: Correlated with type 1 diabetes

Evidence: Ethanolamides are frequently grouped with other endocrine disruptors, but evidence for these effects is lacking. In contrast, the ethanolamides are known to increase the incidence of asthma, and in sufficient concentrations are carcinogenic [10]. A byproduct of ethanolamides, ‘nitrosamines’, have been associated with diabetes due to toxic effects on pancreatic β-cells [11].

7. Bisphenol A (BPA)
Used for:
An ingredient in many different plastics, including epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. BPA is found ubiquitously throughout the home in most plastic-based items, from cleaning products to children’s toys.

Ingredient Labels: BPA

Endocrine Disruption:
Thyroid function, estrogenic, and dopaminergic

Evidence:
BPA is another ingredient widely found in human urine samples. The chemical binds thyroid receptors, reducing the effects of thyroid hormones [12]. BPA also mimics the action of estrogen and dopamine, correlated with reduced infant development [13]. In 2017 the European Chemicals Agency increased it’s rating of BPA to ‘very high concern’.

8. Triclosan (TCS)
Used for:
Much like parabens, triclosan inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungus, helping to prolong shelf-lives.

Ingredient Labels: ‘Preservatives’

Endocrine Disruption:
Thyroid function

Evidence:
Short-term, low concentration triclosan exposure has been shown to cause hypothyroidism in rat studies [14]. Concern has been raised about the chemical because human exposure limits are very close to concentrations at which these harmful effects are observed – giving a very small safety margin.

How Real Are the Risks?

It is difficult to establish if chemicals in cleaning products cause endocrine disruption, and even more difficult to confirm if this disruption has health implications. Animal and cell studies have been looking into the effects of endocrine disruption for 30-40 years, resulting in regulatory agencies restricting the concentrations of the most harmful ingredients.

More research is definitely still required, particularly into the human implications of long-term exposure to theoretical endocrine disruptors.

So What Are The Alternatives?

It is almost impossible to totally eradicate cleaning products from your home, but steps can be taken to reduce your exposure to the most harmful chemicals. Now, given most cleaning product manufacturers won’t disclose the ingredients of their cleaning products, this is tough to do. It’s a disgraceful situation, and the reason this site exists.

We will only review products where we have full ingredient disclosure. And if we spot any chemicals that even has a theoretical risk of endocrine disruption, we will warn you. Giving you the opportunity to research further, and if necessary use an alternative product.

Source: https://www.safehouseholdcleaning.com/cleaning-product-hormone-disruptors/

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