Home » General » 认识您的居家清洁剂 – 什么是1,4-二恶烷,它真的在我的清洁产品中吗?| Knowing Your Household Cleaner – What is 1,4-Dioxane and is it really in my Cleaning Products?

认识您的居家清洁剂 – 什么是1,4-二恶烷,它真的在我的清洁产品中吗?| Knowing Your Household Cleaner – What is 1,4-Dioxane and is it really in my Cleaning Products?

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1,4二恶烷可能是最常被添加到清洁产品中的臭名昭着的成分。

在网上,关于这化学品及其副作用的恐慌故事多不胜数。

还有很多关于它的废话。

在safehouseholdcleaning.com的真正风格,本文的目的是切断废话并确定:

  • 什么是1,4二恶烷
  • 它有什么用途
  • 解释为什么它用于清洁产品
  • 真正的风险是什么
  • 在让您知道如何避免它之前

什么是1,4-二恶烷?

1,4-二恶烷是一种工业溶剂和稳定剂,用于制造许多家用产品。该化学品被归类为“可能对人类致癌”,欧盟(但不是FDA)规定了接触限值。1,4-二恶烷很少列在成分标签上,但可以在以下产品中找到:

  • 清洁产品(如漂白剂,洗涤剂,沐浴露,洗发水)
  • 油漆,染料,香水
  • 杀虫剂,防冻剂
  • 玩具和塑料

据估计,平均每人每天接触0.061mg 1,4-二恶烷,或每年接触超过22mg。在这种低水平上没有急性中毒的风险,但提出了长期接触对健康影响的担忧。

1,4-二恶烷有什么作用?

1,4-二恶烷被广泛使用的原因是它在水中溶解度高,因此可用于“溶解”通常不会混合的成分。这对于多步骤工业合成组分成分的是重要的,例如:表面活性剂,树脂,油和染料。

为什么1,4-二恶烷用于清洁产品?

1,4-二恶烷在清洁产品中并没有实际用途,因为它的存在对清洁产品去除污垢和污渍的程度没有任何影响。也就是说,它用于制作可能在您的清洁产品中的原料,如SLS或SLES。如果这些原料被污染,它就可能在这些原料中被发现。

制造商可以(并且应该)通过产品“真空剥离”去除1,4-二恶烷,但这是一个昂贵的额外步骤。尽管该成分在欧盟禁止用于个人护理产品(例如洗发剂),但FDA或欧盟均未正式限制清洁产品(例如洗涤剂)中1,4-二恶烷的许可量。

使用受其污染的产品有哪些风险?

由于研究呈现出不同程度的水平,因此很难确定清洁产品中1,4-二恶烷的确切含量。FDA测试显示35个样本中有28个(80%)没有检测到1,4-二恶烷,而2009年的一项研究显示儿童沐浴产品含有1-35ppm。同样,很难评估这些水平如何影响人类健康。

1. 毒性
短期接触和长期累积的毒性风险都很低。在动物研究中,致死剂量的1,4-二恶烷约为5000mg / kg(相当于60kg成人的300克),远低于目前每年22mg的暴露量。毒性与刺激,咳嗽,头痛,呕吐,昏迷和死亡有关。唯一的风险是职业性接触的使用大量1,4-二恶烷。

2. 癌症风险
世界卫生组织(WHO)将1,4-二恶烷分类为“可能对人类致癌(2B组)”。该评级来自动物研究,其中暴露已被证明会增加肝脏和胆囊癌的风险。美国环保署计算出每公升含有30微克的饮用水会使患癌症增加0.001%的风险(美国地下水位目前高达5.5微克/升)。20世纪70年代的研究表明,那些使用1,4-二恶烷的人不太可能被诊断患有癌症。

3. 内分泌干扰
目前大多数家用产品中含有1,4-二恶烷,包括儿童沐浴产品,有人担心接触可能影响发育。目前没有证据显示接触1,4-二恶烷对生育或正常发育有任何影响。在怀孕动物研究中,1,4-二恶烷仅以最高剂量影响胚胎,远高于预期的暴露限值。

我不喜欢我正在阅读的内容,我该如何避免使用1,4-二恶烷?

几乎不可能避免使用1,4-二恶烷,因为它被广泛使用但很少被列为成分或污染物。唯一的方法是使用更简单的成分(例如碳酸氢钠)或仅成分含有较少的产品。一些制造商测试他们的产品1,4-二恶烷,并且他们的产品标签’不含二恶烷’,但这些标准各不相同。

我们将在此网站上查看,如果存在已知污染问题,我们会告诉您相关信息。

资料来源:https://www.safehouseholdcleaning.com/14-dioxane-cleaning-products/

1,4 Dioxane is possibly the most infamous ingredient to have been added to cleaning products.

There’s a plethora of online scare stories about the chemical and its side effects.

There’s also a whole lot of bull written about it to.

The purpose of this article is, in true safehouseholdcleaning.com style, is to cut through the crap and determine:

  • What 1,4 Dioxane is
  • What it does
  • Explain why it’s used in cleaning products
  • What the real risks are
  • Before letting you know how to avoid it

What is 1,4-Dioxane?

1,4-Dioxane is an industrial solvent and stabilizer, used in the manufacture of many household products. The chemical is classified as ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’, and the EU (but not the FDA) sets exposure limits. 1,4-Dioxane is rarely listed on ingredient labels, but can be found in the following products:

  • Cleaning products (e.g. bleach, detergent, body wash, shampoo)
  • Paints, dyes, fragrances
  • Pesticides, antifreeze
  • Toys and plastics

It has been estimated that on average a person is exposed to 0.061mg of 1,4-Dioxane every day, or over 22mg each year. There is no risk of acute poisoning at this low level, but concern has been raised about the health implications for chronic exposure.

What does 1,4-Dioxane do?

1,4-Dioxane is so widely used because it’s highly soluble in water, and so can be used to ‘dissolve’ ingredients that normally wouldn’t mix together. This is important for the multistep industrial synthesis of component ingredients, such as: surfactants, resins, oils, and dyes.

Why is 1,4-Dioxane used in cleaning products?

There is no practical use for 1,4-Dioxane in cleaning products as such as its presence does not have any effect on how well a cleaning product removes dirt and stains. That said, it is used to make ingredients that may be in your cleaning products such as SLS or SLES. And it may be detectable in those ingredients if they are contaminated.

Manufacturers can (and should) remove 1,4-Dioxane from their products through ‘vacuum stripping’, but this is an expensive additional step. Neither the FDA or EU formally limit the quantity of 1,4-Dioxane permittable in cleaning products (e.g. detergents), although the ingredient is banned in the EU for personal care products (e.g. shampoo).

What are the risks of using a product contaminated with it?

It’s difficult to determine the exact levels of 1,4-Dioxane in cleaning products, as studies have presented varying levels. FDA testing has shown no detectable 1,4-Dioxane in 28 of 35 samples (80%), whereas a 2009 study showed children’s bath products contained 1-35ppm. Similarly, it is difficult to evaluate how these levels affect human health.

1. Toxicity
The risk of toxicity is low from both short-term exposure and longer-term accumulation. A lethal dose of 1,4-Dioxane is around 5000mg/kg in animal studies (equal to 300grams for a 60kg adult), well-below current exposure of 22mg each year. Toxicity is associated with irritation, coughing, headache, vomiting, coma, and death. The only risk is with occupational exposure from working with significant quantities of 1,4-Dioxane.

2. Cancer Risk
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies 1,4-Dioxane as ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B)’. The rating is from animal studies, in which exposure has been shown to increase the risk of liver and gallbladder carcinomas. The US EPA has calculated that drinking water containing 30microgram/L would increase the risk of cancer by 0.001% (groundwater levels currently up to 5.5microgram/L in the US). Studies from the 1970s showed that those that work with 1,4-Dioxante were no more likely to be diagnosed with cancer.

3. Endocrine Disruption
With 1,4-Dioxane present is most household products, including children’s bath products, there is concern that exposure may affect development. There is currently no evidence that exposure to 1,4-Dioxane has any effects on fertility or normal development. In pregnant animal studies, 1,4-Dioxane only affected embryos at the highest doses, well-above expected exposure limits.

I don’t like what I’m reading, how do I avoid 1,4-Dioxane?

It is almost impossible to avoid 1,4-Dioxane, because it’s so widely used but rarely listed as an ingredient or contaminant. One method is to use simpler ingredients (e.g. sodium bicarbonate) or products that contain only a small number of ingredients. Some manufacturers test their products for 1,4-Dioxane, and brand their products ‘Dioxane-free’, but these standards vary.

We will check on this site if there are known contamination concerns, and we will tell you about them.

Source: https://www.safehouseholdcleaning.com/14-dioxane-cleaning-products/

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