Home » General » 要避免的食品添加剂 – 防腐剂 | Food additives to avoid – Preservatives

要避免的食品添加剂 – 防腐剂 | Food additives to avoid – Preservatives

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软饮料

在饮料中,苯甲酸钠或苯甲酸钾(212)和抗坏血酸(维生素C,天然存在的和添加剂300)的组合可导致形成苯,一种已知的致癌物质。在运输或储存期间将瓶子暴露于热或光下可以增加苯的形成量。

FSANZ测试了68种口味的饮料,包括调味矿泉水,甘露糖,果汁饮料和果汁饮料,其中发现38种含有微量苯。虽然大多数的苯含量低于世界卫生组织的饮用水指南 – 十亿分之十(ppb) – 有些含量高达40 ppb – 1 ppb是澳大利亚更严格的饮用水指南中苯的参考水平。

最重要的是,2005年的一项全国性饮食调查发现幼儿饮用了含有苯甲酸盐的饮料中(非可乐软饮料,橙汁和甘露糖等),可能超过每日可接受摄入量(ADI) )苯甲酸盐。

加工肉类

食品防腐剂亚硝酸钠(250)和硝酸钠(251) – 通常在加工过的腌制肉类如火腿和培根中发现 – 被世界卫生组织国际癌症研究机构列为“可能对人类具有致癌性”,因为它们可以转化进入胃中的亚硝胺而亚硝胺会增加患癌症的风险。

面包

丙酸钙(282)可防止面包上的霉菌生长,并且通常在潮湿的热带地区大量使用。它与偏头痛,行为和学习问题有关,但这些报告缺乏科学可信度。

葡萄酒和干果

用于葡萄酒和干果的防腐剂含有硫(220-228),包括二氧化硫(220),可引发哮喘发作。 2005年全国饮食调查发现,幼儿大量食用含量可能会超过ADI亚硫酸盐值的食物,如杏干,香肠和甘露糖。

我们的判决

相比于交通污染或烟草烟雾的苯在呼吸空气中的污染,食品和饮料产品中苯的暴露量可能较小,但这是不必要的。因此,避免含有苯甲酸盐和抗坏血酸的饮料是有理由的。

癌症委员会现在建议限制或避免加工肉类,如香肠,法兰克福香肠,萨拉米香肠,培根和火腿。但留意的是,亚硝酸钠可以防止导致可能会更直接致命的肉毒杆菌中毒的细菌生长, 这相对于导致癌症风险较小。哮喘患者应避免使用二氧化硫。

资料来源:https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/food-warnings-and-safety/food-additives/articles/food-additives-you-should-avoid#antioxidants

Soft drinks

In drinks, the combination of sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate (212) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C, both naturally occurring and the additive 300) can result in the formation of benzene, a known carcinogen. Exposing the bottle to heat or light during transport or storage can boost the amount of benzene formed.

FSANZ tested 68 flavoured drinks, including flavoured mineral waters, cordial, fruit juice and fruit drinks, and found 38 of the samples contained trace levels of benzene. While the majority had benzene levels below WHO guidelines for drinking water – 10 parts per billion (ppb) – some contained levels up to 40 ppb – 1 ppb is the reference level for benzene in Australia’s more stringent drinking water guidelines.

On top of that, a national diet survey in 2005 found that young children who consume lots of drinks that contain a form of benzoate (non-cola soft drinks, orange juice and cordial, for example) could be exceeding the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for benzoates.

Processed meats

The food preservatives sodium nitrite (250) and sodium nitrate (251) – typically found in processed cured meats like ham and bacon – are both listed as “probably carcinogenic to humans” by WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, because they can be converted into nitrosamines in the stomach and nitrosamines increase the risk of cancer.

Bread

Calcium propionate (282) prevents mould growth on bread and is often heavily used in humid, tropical areas. It’s been linked to migraines and behavioural and learning problems, but these reports lack scientific credibility.

Wine and dried fruit

Preservatives that contain sulphur (220-228), including sulphur dioxide (220), which is used in wine and dried fruit, can trigger asthma attacks. The 2005 national diet survey found that young children who eat lots of foods that contain sulphites, such as dried apricots, sausages and cordial, could be exceeding the ADI for sulphites.

Our verdict

Exposure to benzene in food and drink products may be small when compared with breathing air that contains benzene from traffic pollution or tobacco smoke, but it’s unnecessary. So it makes sense to avoid drinks that contain benzoates and ascorbic acid.

The Cancer Council now recommends limiting or avoiding processed meats such as sausages, frankfurts, salami, bacon and ham. But also keep in mind that the cancer risk is relatively small and that sodium nitrite prevents the growth of bacteria that cause botulism poisoning – which can be more immediately deadly.Sulphur dioxide should be avoided by people who have asthma.

Source: https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/food-warnings-and-safety/food-additives/articles/food-additives-you-should-avoid#antioxidants

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