Home » General » 要避免的食品添加剂 – 色素 | Food additives to avoid – Colouring

要避免的食品添加剂 – 色素 | Food additives to avoid – Colouring

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色素和过动症

一项由英国政府资助对于人工色素关注的研究得出结论,色素和防腐剂苯甲酸钠(211)的混合物可能与某些儿童过动症的增加有关。

研究的色素是酒石黄(102),喹啉黄(104),夕阳黄FCF(110),氮紅carmoisine(122),ponceau 4R(124)和 誘惑紅allura red AC(129)。

英国食品监管机构,食品标准局正在鼓励食品制造商寻找这些颜色的替代品,并报告指出英国的一些制造商和零售商已经采取行动停止使用它们。

在欧盟范围内,含有这些色素的食品目前强制性标上警告:“可能对儿童的过动和注意力产生不利影响。”

在澳大利亚,超市连锁店Aldi已从其自有品牌产品中去除了这六种色素,以及其余八种色素:苋菜紫(123),赤藓红樱桃红(127),靛蓝(132),亮蓝(133) ,绿色(142,143),黑色(151)和棕色(155)。

然而,FSANZ表示,食品和饮料中添加色素的膳食接触不会对澳大利亚的儿童构成公共健康和安全问题。

色素和过敏

在20世纪80年代,关注的焦点是酒石黄,一种可引起轻度过敏反应的人造色素。夕阳黄FCF可以产生类似的效果。一些动物研究表显示落黄可导致肿瘤,但结果与大鼠和小鼠的其他研究结果不一致。

天然添加剂不一定比人造添加剂更安全。例如,通常在人造黄油,柴郡奶酪,烟熏鱼和蛋糕中发现的天然着色胭脂红(160b)可以在一些人中引起过敏型反应。

色素和癌症

两项长期喂养研究表明,赤藓红(127)增加了大鼠甲状腺肿瘤的发病率,但联合国粮食及农业组织联合管理的国际科学专家委员会JECFA审查了这些和其他现有数据。和世界卫生组织(WHO)一样,色素是安全的。即便如此,它在澳大利亚的使用仅限于冰川樱桃。

在小鼠测试中,allura red AC(129)与癌症有关,但是伤害的证据并不一致或充实。声称亮蓝FCF(133)具有致癌性的说法基本上没有根据。

我们的判决

经常过度使用,食物中并不需要色素来做任何功能,但纯粹是为了卖相。换句话说 –是为了行销的。

鉴于它们最常见于甜酒,冰棍,蛋糕和软饮料等食品中,我们建议仅将其作为偶尔的食品,因此以通过减少或完全不食用这些食品来避免颜色添加剂是很容易的。

鉴于英国食品监管机构决定完全推动行业消除部分颜色行动,我们也希望看到FSANZ审查澳大利亚的情况。

与此同时,如果您的孩子出现多动的迹象,从他们的饮食中切除含有这些颜色的食物可能会有所帮助。但是,如果您认为您或您的孩子对任何食品或食品添加剂有不耐症或过敏,请咨询您的医生或营养师 – 只是切掉某些食物可能不是答案。

资料来源:https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/food-warnings-and-safety/food-additives/articles/food-additives-you-should-avoid#antioxidants

Colours

Colours and hyperactivity

The concern over artificial colours was fuelled by a UK government-funded study which concluded that a mixture of colourings and the preservative sodium benzoate (211) could be linked to increased hyperactivity in some children.

The colours studied were tartrazine (102), quinoline yellow (104), sunset yellow FCF (110), carmoisine (122), ponceau 4R (124) and allura red AC (129).

The Food Standards Agency, the British food regulator, is encouraging food manufacturers to find alternatives to these colours and reports that some manufacturers and retailers in the UK have already taken action to stop using them.

Within the EU, foods containing these colours are now labelled with a mandatory warning: “May have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children.”

In Australia, the supermarket chain Aldi has removed these six colours from its own-brand products, as well as eight more colours: amaranth purple (123), erythrosine cherry red (127), indigo blue (132), brilliant blue (133), green (142, 143), black (151) and brown (155).

However, FSANZ say dietary exposure to added colours in food and beverages doesn’t pose a public health and safety concern for children in Australia.

Colours and allergies

In the 1980s, the concern centred on tartrazine, an artificial colour that can cause mild allergic-type reactions. Sunset yellow FCF can have a similar effect. Some animal studies have indicated sunset yellow can cause tumours, but the results aren’t consistent with other studies on rats and mice.

Natural additives aren’t necessarily safer than artificial ones. The natural colouring annatto (160b), for example — typically found in margarine, Cheshire cheese, smoked fish and cakes — can cause allergic-type reactions in some people.

Colours and cancer

Two long-term feeding studies demonstrated that erythrosine (127) increases the incidence of thyroid tumours in rats, but a review of these and other available data by JECFA, an international scientific expert committee administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations and the World Health Organisation (WHO), concluded the colour is safe. Even so, its use in Australia is restricted to glacé cherries.

Tests have linked allura red AC (129) with cancer in mice, but evidence of harm isn’t consistent or substantial. Claims that brilliant blue FCF (133) is carcinogenic are largely unsubstantiated.

Our verdict

Often overused, colours aren’t needed in food to do anything functional, but purely for looks. In other words – they’re there for the marketing.

And given that they’re most often found in foods like cordials, lollies, cakes and soft drinks, which we’re recommended to have only as an occasional treat anyway, it’s easy enough to avoid colour additives by only eating these foods rarely, if at all.

In light of the UK food regulator’s decision to push for industry action to remove some of these colours altogether, we’d like to see FSANZ review the situation in Australia.

In the meantime, if your child shows signs of hyperactivity, cutting out foods that contain these colours from their diet could help. However, if you think you or your child has an intolerance or allergy to any food or food additive, seek advice from your medical practitioner or dietitian – just cutting out certain foods may not be the answer.

Source: https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/food-warnings-and-safety/food-additives/articles/food-additives-you-should-avoid#antioxidants

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