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认识您的居家清洁剂 – 防腐剂 Know Your Household Cleaner – Preservatives

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什么是防腐剂?

什么是防腐剂?

消费者们购买清洁产品时都希望得到和使用从开始购买之后仍然可在几个月内使用的优质产品。因此,在开发新的清洁产品时,所考虑的关键因素是产品在商店货架和消费者家庭中能保持稳定的时间长短。许多消费产品设计为在制造后至少稳定两年。

为了配合这个时间框架,大多数产品含有低水平的材料,称为防腐剂。防腐剂是添加到产品中的化学品,有助于防止产品腐烂和腐败,从而导致产品无法使用且可能存在危险。

几乎所有的液体清洁剂和一些干燥产品都使用防腐剂。如果没有防腐剂,您可能对在商店货架上购买并保存在家中的产品质量没有信心。

保质期稳定性是关键产品属性

防腐剂是添加到配制产品中以抑制细菌和真菌生长的材料。几乎所有地方都存在细菌和真菌,只要它们找到有利于生长的条件,它们就会生长。除非配制的清洁产品提供极端条件,例如非常低或非常高的酸碱值或非常低的水含量,否则那些不受防腐剂保护的产品可以滋生这些微生物。随着清洁产品对其用于清洁的表面变得越来越温和,因而为微生物提供了更好的生长条件而自然的污染产品,对于保存增加了必要性。

污染的次要影响

清洁产品中的微生物污染可导致许多问题,包括“异味”、“不美观”的产生,包括颜色和不透明度的变化,以及失去性能。性能影响通常是因微生物吞噬表面活性剂和其它活性成分配方而引起的,由于微生物代谢所引的起相关酸碱值变化导致配方稳定性的丧失和或微生物吞噬了保持配方均匀所加入原料。微生物污染还可能导致产品包装的问题,包括容器的加压,金属容器(例如气溶胶罐)的腐蚀,在严重的例子中,并且使产品生物膜输送机械堵塞。

除了这些美观和产品性能问题之外,污染的产品可能是孕育未知污染微生物的温床,导致“刚清理”的表面快速污染。

产品保存不是抗菌产品

防腐剂与添加到抗菌剂和消毒剂产品配方中的抗菌元素不应被混淆为抗菌性。防腐剂仅是含量足以保护产品本身免受微生物污染。

通常,消毒剂和消毒剂是膜活性的并且通过妨害/破坏微生物的细胞膜起作用的。然而,许多防腐剂是亲电子的并与亲细胞核相互作用,例如硫醇,胺和酶的酰胺,氨基酸和存与微生物细胞的蛋白质。这些相互作用破坏微生物生长所需的细胞功能如呼吸,蛋白质合成和能量产生。常用的亲电子防腐剂的有异噻唑酮,溴硝醇和醛,其包括甲醛释放剂和戊二醛。

资料来源:http://www.aboutcleaningproducts.com/ingredients/preservatives/

What Are Preservatives?

The consumer who purchases a cleaning product expects to receive and use a quality product that remains useable for several months after the initial purchase date. Accordingly, when developing a new cleaning product, a key factor to consider is how long the product will remain stable on the store shelves and in consumer households.  Many consumer products designed to be stable for at least two years following manufacture.

In order to meet this time frame, most products contain low levels of materials called preservatives. Preservatives are chemicals added to a product to help prevent decay and spoilage of the product which could render the product un-useable and possibly dangerous..

Preservatives are used in almost all liquid cleaners and some dry products as well. Without preservatives, you may not have confidence in the quality of products you purchase on store shelves and keep in your homes.

Shelf-life Stability is a Key Product Attribute

Preservatives are materials added to formulated products to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth.  Bacteria and fungi exist almost everywhere and wherever they find conditions favourable for growth they will grow. Unless formulated cleaning products provide extreme conditions such as very low or very high pH or very low water content, those products that are not protected by preservatives can grow these microbes. As cleaning products become more and more mild to the surfaces that they are used to clean, they provide better conditions for growing microbes that may naturally contaminate the product, increasing the need for preservation.

Secondary Effects of Contamination

Microbial contamination in a cleaning product can lead to a number of problems including the development of “off-odours”, development of “off appearance” including colour changes and opacity changes, and loss of performance.  Performance impacts are typically caused by the microbes feeding off the surfactants and other active components of the formulation, by the loss of formulation stability due to pH changes associated with microbial metabolism and / or the microbes feeding off the components added to keep the formulation homogeneous.  Microbial contamination can also lead to problems with the product packaging including pressurization of the container, corrosion of metal containers such as aerosol cans, and in extreme examples, clogging of the product delivery mechanisms by biofilm.

In addition to these aesthetic and product performance concerns, there is also the risk that the contaminated product can be a reservoir of unknown microbial contamination leading to rapid contamination of a “freshly cleaned” surface.

A Preserved Product is not an Antimicrobial Product

Preservatives should not be confused with biocidal components added to formulations to impart an antimicrobial property to disinfectant and sanitizer products.  Preservatives are included only in amounts sufficient to protect the product itself from microbial contamination.

Typically disinfectants and sanitizers are membrane active and work by disrupting / damaging the cellular membranes of microorganisms.   Many preservatives however are electrophonic and interact with nucleophilic sites such as thiols, amines and amides of enzymes, amino acids, and protein present in the microbial cell. These interactions disrupt cellular function, respiration, protein synthesis, and energy generation needed for microorganisms to grow.   Examples of commonly used electrophilic preservatives are isothiazolones, bronopol and aldehydes which include formaldehyde releasers and glutaraldehyde.

Source: http://www.aboutcleaningproducts.com/ingredients/preservatives/

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